Through, Perforated Plate, Spray Nozzle and Orifice Types of Liquid Distributor

In the mass transfer process, evenly distribution of liquid and gas is certain important. If the liquid and gas are not evenly distributed across the superficial tower area when it enters the packing bed, the liquid-to-gas ratio will be incorrect and the required separation efficiency will be reduced and even fail. To ensure the intimate contact and high mass transfer efficiency, any cross section In the packed tower should be evenly distributed with gas and liquid. So, the liquid distributor, especially the pre-distributor is priority among priorities.

Liquid distributor is an important tower internals in the packed tower, which is installed upper of the packing hold down and connect with the liquid inlet. The structure of liquid distributor should be reasonable to prevent disturbing hold down device for higher mass transfer efficiency.

A packed tower and three types of liquid distributor (through, perforated pipe and orifice type).

LD-01: Liquid distributor ensures uniform liquid distribution for high mass transfer efficiency.

What is optimal liquid distributor?

  • Suitable distribution point density. The distribution point density should be matched with packing. The larger specific surface area of packing, the precious separation requirements and the larger distribution point density.
  • High operation flexibility and good adaptation. It can be used in various temperature and different corrosive environments.
  • Uniform gas distribution and low resistance. It can supply maximum free interfacial rate to ensure ensure the uniform distribution.
  • Reasonable structure. The structure is easy to fabrication, installation, adjustment and maintenance.
  • Multi-types for choice. Different types and multi-materials for choice to suit different applications and media.

What types of liquid distributor for choice?

The liquid distributor has various types according to different standard and using conditions. Overall, it has four types.

  • Spray nozzles. Hemispherical spray nozzle will distribute the liquids evenly to the random or structured packing bed. There are numerous small holes in 3–10 mm on the nozzle. It is suitable for the smaller diameter packed tower, which is smaller than 600 mm.
  • Perforated pipe distributor. Single row or double row perforated pipes will evenly distributed the liquid to the packing bed through perforated holes under the pipe. It is widely used in the medium liquid, reduced pressure distillation towers and wire gauze structured packing towers. It can be made into ladder shapes and ring shapes.
  • Through distributor. It has through type and through-pan type, which is widely used in the heavy liquid and gas load, high viscosity liquid and liquid with suspended solid.
  • Orifice distributor. It can be divided into perforated plate type and pan type. The liquid will flow down through perforated holes or overflow from the annulus between the distributor and the vessel. It is suitable for the small diameter tower, which is smaller than the 800 mm.
A spray nozzle liquid distributor are placed on the ground.

LD-02: Spray nozzle liquid distributor.

A perforated pipe type liquid distributor is placed on the ground.

LD-03: Perforated pipe liquid distributor.

A through type liquid distributor with several round holes on the bottom through on the ground.

LD-04: Through liquid distributor.

A perforated plate type orifice liquid distributor on the white background.

LD-05: Perforated type orifice liquid distributor.

A packed tower and we can see the column internals, demister pads and random/structured packing clearly.